Vaccines have also been developed to protect poultry from avian influenza.  The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. This flu was highly infectious and presented with intense, occasionally lethal symptoms. Missionaries like Francisco Pires took some pity on the sick children of natives, whom they often regarded as innocent, and frequently baptized them during epidemics in the belief they'd "saved" their souls. , From a public health point of view, flu epidemics spread rapidly and are very difficult to control. The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA.  Massawa was claimed by the Ottomans from Medri Bahri during their conquest of Habesh in 1557, but the pandemic's 1559 wave challenged their army's hold onto territory around the city after flu cut down a large number of the Ottoman forces. Influenza caused higher burial rates, near-universal infection, and economic turmoil as it returned in repeated waves.  As a result, flu would have quickly spread through Portuguese colonies due to mandatory church attendance.  In contrast, there is not enough evidence to support corticosteroids as additional therapy for influenza. , Influenza infects many animal species, and transfer of viral strains between species can occur. Pathological descriptions strongly resembling influenza and similarities to 1557's outbreak enabled English medical historian Dr. Charles Creighton to describe how England was plagued by a second wave of influenza in late 1558. 映画「FLU 運命の36時間」のあらすじと結末をネタバレ解説。動画やキャスト紹介、レビューや感想も掲載。ストーリーのラストまで簡単解説します。, FLU 運命の36時間の紹介：2013年韓国映画。韓国の分唐で、密入国者から鳥インフルエンザが感染し、街中に広がりはじめます。救助隊のジグに車から救出された医師のイネは、娘のミルが感染していることを知り、感染を隠していました。その頃、政府によって分唐を隔離し、感染者を生きながら焼き殺すという事が実行されていました。ミルを助けようと、ジグとイネは奮闘しますが…という内容の韓国発の感染パニック映画です。 The exact changes that are required for this to happen are not well understood. Influenza models, such as murine influenza, are convenient models to test the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic biologics. " The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung. , The first convincing record of an influenza pandemic was a minor pandemic chronicled in 1510, which began in East Asia before spreading to North Africa and then Europe.  Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs.
But the most striking features of scarlet fever and diphtheria, like rashes or pseudomembranes, remain unmentioned by any of the 1557 pandemic's observers and the first recognized whooping cough epidemic is a localized outbreak in Paris from 1578.  In otherwise healthy adults, influenza virus shedding (the time during which a person might be infectious to another person) increases sharply one-half to one day after infection, peaks on day 2 and persists for an average total duration of 5 days—but can persist as long as 9 days. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)", "Vaccines and antiviral drugs in pandemic preparedness", "Making better influenza virus vaccines?  Whether immunizing health care workers affects patient outcomes is controversial with some reviews finding insufficient evidence and others finding tentative evidence. If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza will spread uncontrollably, causing a pandemic. The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the nucleus and enter this membrane protrusion (step 6). The main variants named using this convention are: bird flu, human flu, swine flu, horse flu and dog flu. Pfeiffer).
 H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission.  These medications are sometimes effective against influenza A if given early in the infection but are ineffective against influenza B viruses, which lack the M2 drug target.  The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses. , Overall the benefits of neuraminidase inhibitors in those who are otherwise healthy do not appear to be greater than the risks. The epidemics of fevers and respiratory illness eventually became referred to as the New Sickness in England, New Acquaintance in Scotland, and coqueluche or simply catarrh by medical historians in the rest of Europe. The pandemic's most memorable effects on the Ottoman army in Africa are recorded as part of the 1559 wave.
It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the seasonal epidemics; occasionally, a new or overlooked strain becomes prominent during that time. , Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of preventive measures. Diarrhea is not usually a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children.  By the time Bernardo had traveled to northern Italy on August 3 the disease had already spread into the rest of Europe. The total mortality of the 1918–1919 pandemic is not known, but it is estimated that 2.5% to 5% of the world's population was killed. "Gentle bleeding" was used on the first day of the infection only, as frequently used medical techniques like bloodletting and purgation were often fatal for influenza. , Influenza reaches peak prevalence in winter, and because the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have winter at different times of the year, there are actually two different flu seasons each year.  Internationally, on 18 January 2006, donor nations pledged US$2 billion to combat bird flu at the two-day International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Influenza held in China. Baptism rates in native communities were deeply connected with outbreaks of disease, and missionary policies of conducting religious activities while sick likely helped spread the flu.  In hospitals, quaternary ammonium compounds and bleach are used to sanitize rooms or equipment that have been occupied by people with influenza symptoms.  Direct transmission of an influenza virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (this is called zoonotic swine flu). (Cat flu generally refers to feline viral rhinotracheitis or feline calicivirus and not infection from an influenza virus.) ACS Nano, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (.  British medical historian Thomas Short wrote that "At Mantua Carpentaria, three miles outside of Madrid, the first cases were reported...There it began with a roughness of the jaws, small cough, then a strong fever with a pain in the head, back, and legs.
 Seasonal changes in contact rates from school terms, which are a major factor in other childhood diseases such as measles and pertussis, may also play a role in the flu. The first significant step towards preventing influenza was the development in 1944 of a killed-virus vaccine for influenza by Thomas Francis, Jr.  Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu".
 Although face masks might help prevent transmission when caring for the sick, there is mixed evidence on beneficial effects in the community. The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed.  For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2.  The Native American Cherokee appear to have been affected during this wave, and it may have spread along newly established trade routes between Spanish colonies in the New World.
 These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. Influenza hit the Kingdom of Portugal at the same time as it spread throughout Spain, with an impact that spread across the Atlantic Ocean.  The first pandemic of influenza to be reliably recorded as spreading worldwide was the 1557 influenza pandemic, in which a reoccurring wave likely killed Queen Mary I of England and the Archbishop of Canterbury within 12 hours of each other.  The Army was deeply involved in this research due to its experience of influenza in World War I, when thousands of troops were killed by the virus in a matter of months.  "Well documented descriptions from medical observers" who witnessed the effects of the pandemic as it spread through populations have been reviewed by numerous medical historians in the centuries since. Populations of natives attempted to flee the infection afflicting their communities, spreading influenza northward. , In virus classification, influenza viruses are negative sense RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae:, These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that are a common cause of respiratory infections in children such as croup, but can also cause a disease similar to influenza in adults.  Death occurs mostly in high risk groups—the young, the old, and those with other health problems. " Bloodletting greatly increased the risk of mortality, and it was observed in Mantua Carpentaria that "2000 were let blood of and all died. , Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two large glycoproteins on the outside of the viral particles. The symptoms were so severe that some members of the population suspected a mass poisoning had occurred.. , The influenza vaccine is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for high-risk groups, such as pregnant women, children aged less than five years, the elderly, health care workers, and people who have chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or are immunocompromised among others. ", "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre-pandemic vaccines, March 2007", "What you need to know about influenza (flu) from CDC", Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Influenza&oldid=988320640, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Influenza virus, magnified approximately 100,000 times, Up to 650,000 respiratory deaths per year.